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Brief review of coronaviruses in humans and animals

Coronaviruses have been between animals and humans for a long time and constitute a large family. Learn about their main characteristics.

In 2020, humanity has faced a health, economic and social catastrophe because of the novel coronavirus, but what are these infectious-contagious viral agents and how did they arise?

The surprising Coronaviridae family  Coronaviruses are a family of RNA viruses with a lipid bilayer envelope composed of more than 15 pathogens that affect humans, mammals and birds. They are pleomorphic particles that measure around 100 nm in diameter (range between 60 and 220), with spike-shaped projections ("S" glycoproteins) on their surface.

Coronaviruses carry a 27 to 31 kilobase positive-sense single-stranded RNA, a capsid of a phosphorylated protein linked to the genome forming a ribonucleoprotein helix. They replicate in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells and are transmitted horizontally by the respiratory route through aerosols (coughing, sneezing), saliva, mucus and feces. They produce respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases.

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